Ny

2 december 1944

2 december 1944



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

2 december 1944

Västfronten

Amerikanska trupper når Saarlauten

Burma

14: e armén fångar Kalwe

Diplomati

Samtalen äger rum mellan De Gaulle och Stalin i Moskva

Krig i luften

Bell XP-77-projektet avbryts officiellt. Endast två prototyper byggdes, varav en förstördes i en krasch den 2 oktober 1944.



Historiska händelser i december 1944

    Prokofjevs 8: e pianosonat, premiär 10: e Heisman Trophy Award: Les Horvath, Ohio State (QB) General De Gaulle anländer till Moskva Tyska trupper griper Betuwse -vallar USA: s 95: e infanteridivision upptar bro vid Saar brittisk order för att avväpna orsakar generalstrejk i Grekland Ungerska dödsmarsch av judar slutar Mussert lägger Seyss-Inquart-planen för små Nazi-Europa Tillfällig sammanslagning av 2 NFL-lag, Pittsburgh Steelers och Chicago Cardinals, upplöses i slutet av säsongens andra världskrigs slut innan säsongen 1945 startar, så båda lagen återupptar normal verksamhet US 5th Armored division ockuperar Brandenburg Hurtgenwald Det grekiska inbördeskriget bryter ut i ett nyligen befriat Grekland, mellan kommunister och royalister Storbritanniens hemvärn ("pappas armé") stod officiellt vid en särskild avskedsparad i Hyde Park, London. Tyskarna förstör Rhen vallar, Betuwe översvämmade tyska trupper stjäl allt silvermynt i Utrecht

Händelse av Intressera

15 december Bandledare, major Glenn Miller, förlorade över Engelska kanalen


Berömda födelsedagar

    Pierre Arditi, fransk film- och scenskådespelare Eric Bloom, amerikansk rockvokalist/gitarrist (Blue Öyster Cult) Tahar Ben Jelloun, fransk författare av marockanskt ursprung Daniel Pennac, fransk författare, född i Marocko Michael W. Hagee, 33: e kommendant i USA Marine Corps Cathy Lee Crosby, amerikansk skådespelerska (Coach, That's Incredible), född i Los Angeles, Kalifornien Roger Omond, journalist Ibrahim Rugova, Kosovo-nationalistisk författare och president i Kosovo (1992-2006), född i Crnce, Demokratiska federala Jugoslavien (nu Kosovo) (d. 2006) Botho Strauß, tysk författare, född i Naumburg, Tyskland António Variações [António Joaquim Rodrigues Ribeiro], portugisisk singer-songwriter (Dar & amp; Receber), född i Braga, Portugal (d. 1984) Chris Hillman, Amerikansk sångare (The Byrds - Turn Turn Turn), född i San Diego, Kalifornien Dennis Wilson, amerikansk trummis och sångare (Beach Boys), född i Hawthorne, Kalifornien (d. 1983) François Migault, fransk bilracer (24 timmar i Le Mans 1976, tvåa 16 F1 GP), född i Le Mans, Frankrike (d. 2012) Anna McGarrigle, kanadensisk folkmusik singer-songwriter, född i Montreal, Quebec Lynford & quotHux & quot Brown, jamaicansk session och turnégitarrist (Jimmy Cliff Paul Simon Toots och Maytals), född i Port Antonio, Jamaica (d. 2020) Jeroen Krabbé , Holländsk skådespelare (The Fugitive), född i Amsterdam Jonathan King, engelsk sångare och låtskrivare (& quotEveryone's Gone To The Moon & quot) och skivproducent, född i London David & quotFritz & quot Fryer, brittisk popgitarrist och låtskrivare (The Four Pennies -& quotJuliet & quot), född i Oldham, Lancashire (d. 2007) Jamiel Chagra, amerikansk drogtrafikant, född i El Paso, Texas (d. 2008) Daniel Chorzempa, amerikansk organist, född i Minneapolis, Minnesota George Baker [Johannes Bouwens], nederländsk sångare och låtskrivare ( Paloma Blanca, Little Green Bag), född i Hoorn, Nederländerna Ki Longfellow, amerikansk författare (The Secret Magdalene), född i Staten Island, New York Bob O'Connor, amerikansk politiker (58: e borgmästaren i Pittsburgh), född i Greenfield Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 2006) Guy Darrell [John Swail], brittisk sångerska (I'm Been Hurt), född i Kent, England Tisha Sterling, amerikansk skådespelerska (Coogans Bluff), född i Hollywood, Kalifornien Brenda Lee, amerikansk sångerska (jag är ledsen) , född i Atlanta, Georgia David Ashley White, amerikansk kompositör och pedagog, född i San Antonio, Texas Lynda Day George, amerikansk skådespelerska (Casey-Mission Impossible), född i San Marcos, Texas Teri Garr, amerikansk skådespelerska (Mr. Young Frankenstein), född i Lakewood, Ohio (eller 1947) Jon Garrison, amerikansk tenor, född i Higginsville, Missouri Kenneth Cranham, skotsk skådespelare (Hellbound: Hellraiser II), född i Dunfermline, Fife, Skottland Jean Doré, kanadensisk politiker (39: e Borgmästare i Montreal), född i Montreal, Quebec (d. 2015) Rob Tyner [Robert Derminer], amerikansk hårdrocksångare (MC5 - Kick Out The Jams), född i Detroit, Michigan (d. 1991) Dick Dees, nederländsk politiker , född i Oostburg, Nederländerna Stan Bahnsen, amerikansk basebollkanna (NY Yankee, AL-nybörjare från 1968), bor n i Council Bluffs, Iowa

Chico Mendes

15 december Chico Mendes, brasiliansk miljöaktivist och gummitappare, född i Xapuri, Brasilien (d. 1988)

    John Abercrombie, amerikansk jazzgitarrist, född i Portchester, New York (d. 2017) Yosemite Sam, Warner Bros. seriefigur skapad av Friz Freleng, (Looney Tunes och Merrie Melodies -serien), första debut i & quotStage Door Cartoon & quot Bernard Hill, engelska skådespelare (Yosser Hughes-Boys från Blackstuff, King Théoden-The Lord of the Rings), född i Manchester, England Ference Bene, ungerska rekord 12 fotbollsmål (OS-guld 1964) Jack L [aurence] Chalker, amerikansk sci-fi-författare (Saga of Well World) Giedrė Lukšaitė-Mrázková, litauisk – tjeckisk cembalo, organist och pedagog, född i Kaunas, Litauen Deke [Roger] Leonard, walisisk rockmusiker (Man), född i Llanelli (d. 2017) Richard Leakey , Kenyansk paleoantropolog, naturvårdare och politiker, född i Nairobi, Kenya Alvin Lee, brittisk rocksångare och gitarrist (10 år efter), född i Nottingham, England (d. 2013) Tim Reid, Norfolk VA, amerikansk skådespelare och komiker (Venus Flytrap -WKRP, Franks plats) Zal Yanovsky , Kanadensisk rockgitarrist (Lovin 'Spoonful - & quotDo You Believe in Magic? & Quot), född i Toronto, Ontario (d. 2002) William Christie, amerikanskfödd chef för Les Arts Florissants Mitchell Feigenbaum, amerikansk matematisk fysiker Steve Tyrell [Stephen Bilao III], amerikansk jazz- och standardsångare och skivproducent, född i Palo Pinto, Texas Gernot Wolfgruber, österrikisk författare, född i Gmünd, Niederösterreich Robert & quotBobby & quot; Colomby, amerikansk rocktrummis (Blood Sweat & amp Tears - & quot; Spinning Wheel & quot), född i NYC, New York Jean Fergusson, engelsk skådespelerska, född i Wakefield, Storbritannien Jared Martin, amerikansk skådespelare (Varian -Fantastic Voyage, Dusty-Dallas), född i NYC, New York Michael Tilson Thomas, amerikansk dirigent (San Francisco Symphony, 1995-2020) och kompositör (Shówa/Shoáh), född i Los Angeles, Kalifornien Hwang Jang Lee, koreansk kampsportartist och film skådespelare, född i Aomori, Japan Zheng Xiaoyu, kinesisk byråkrat, född i Fuzhou, Kina (d. 2007) Colin & quot Barry & quot Jenkins, engelsk rocktrummis (Animals - & quot; House of the Rising Sun & quot), född i Leicester, United Rike

Steve Carlton

22 december Steve Carlton, amerikansk basebollkanna (Cy Young '72, '77, '80, '82), född i Miami, Florida

    Wesley Clark, amerikansk militärofficer, född i Chicago, Illinois Erhard Keller, tysk snabbåkare (OS -guld 1968, 72 500 m), född i Günzburg, Tyskland Mike Curb, amerikansk sångare (Mike Curb Congregation), född i Savannah, Georgia Oswald Gracias , Romersk katolska ärkebiskop av Bombay, född i Bombay Presidency Barry Chuckle [Barry Patton Elliott], brittisk underhållare, författare och skådespelare (ChuckleVision, The Freddie Starr Showcase), född i Rotherham, England Henry Vestine, amerikansk gitarrist (Canned Heat), född i Takoma Park, Maryland (d. 1997) Kenny Everett [Maurice James Christopher Cole], brittisk DJ och TV -personlighet (Kenny Everett Show), född i Seaforth, Lancashire, England (d. 1995) Jairzinho, brasiliansk fotbollsspelare Emory Gordy Jr. , Amerikansk musiker och musikproducent, född i Atlanta, Georgia Sam Strahan, Nya Zeeland rugby union lock (17 mössor Manawatū), född i Palmerston North, Nya Zeeland (d. 2019) Jane Lapotaire, brittisk skådespelerska (Spirit of the Dead), född i Ipswich, Suffo lk, England Mick Jones, engelsk rockgitarrist (utlänning - & quotI Want to Know What Love Is & quot), född i Portsmouth, Hampshire, England Tracy Nelson, amerikansk bluesrock -sångare (Mother Earth), född i Madison, Wisconsin Johnny Isakson, amerikansk politiker Kary Mullis, amerikansk kemist, nobelpristagare Rodney Redmond, NZ -cricketspelare (öppnare gjorde ett sekel i Test v Pak 1973), född i Whangarei, Nya Zeeland William J. Fallon, amerikanska marinadmiralen, tidigare USA: s centralkommandot Taylor Hackford, amerikansk regissör ( Devil's Advocate, Ray), född i Santa Barbara, Kalifornien

Från Omaha Beach till Rhen

Det militära axiomet, "Ingen plan överlever första kontakten med fienden", tillämpades på Rangers på D-dagen. Task Force A (LTC Rudder) ledningslandningsbåt blev felorienterad och gick mot Pointe et Raz de la Percée, tre mil österut. När han såg felet riktade Rudder tillbaka sin flottiljchef på kurs, men det fick Task Force A att landa trettio minuter för sent. LTC Rudders tre företag laddade tvärs över skalet på stranden och klättrade snabbt upp på klipporna när förstörarna USS Saterlee och HMS Talybont gett närstående brandstöd. Inom 45 minuter var det tyska batteriet säkert, men de tre kompaniets styrkor fick hålla flera motattacker. På grund av 30 minuters fördröjning och förvirrade radiosändningar fick LTC Schneider inget kodord från Pointe du Hoc. 39

39 Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, 322 Cornelius Ryan, Den längsta dagen, 6 juni 1944 (New York: Touchstone Book, 1959), 209-210.

Task Force B landade på Omaha tätt bakom Able Company, 116: e infanteriet, och sprang in i en malström av maskingeväreld från bluffarna ovanför stranden. Den koncentrerade elden decimerade två tredjedelar av Able Company och nästan hälften av Rangers innan de kunde röra sig över den breda stranden till skydd för havsväggen. 40 Efter att ha övervunnit hindren och inför kraftig fiendens eld nådde Rangers basen av klippan 350 meter från havsväggen. Med hjälp av bajonetter och knivar började SGT Richard Garrett och SGT Julius Belcher klättra upp på klippan. När de nådde toppen tappade de ner rep och följdes av 1LT Bill Moody och PFC Otto Stephans. Men även med att vinna den höga marken stoppades Task Force B snabbt av den intensiva fiendens eld. 41

40 Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, 313-314.

41 Ryan, Den längsta dagen, 6 juni 1944, 199-200 Svart, Bataljonen, 90-92. Den 6 juni 1944 dödades nitton av de sextioåtta Rangers i Charlie Company, andra rangerbataljonen på Omaha Beach.

OMAHA BEACH, Frankrike av Joseph Gary Sheahan, 1944 skildrar intensiteten av eld under de första timmarna av landningen. (US Army Art Collection)

Huvudartikel

Sidofält

Slutnoter

I den hackiga engelska kanalen LTC Schneider, en veteran från många amfibielandningar, väntade på signalen från Rudder. Han fick ingen och beordrade flottiljen till Omaha Beach vid 0710, tio minuter efter deadline. Schneider var i en unik position som den enda Ranger -officer i sitt kommando som var en stridsveteran. Utanför kusten kunde han se vad som hände på stränderna och hade tid, om än lite, att utvärdera situationen. Han valde att landa sin styrka på den högra flanken på Omaha Beach, som fick relativt lätt eld (jämfört med resten av området). Detta beslut resulterade i att Task Force C landade mestadels intakt.

På Omaha Beach stannade den 29: e infanteridivisionen. Trupperna hade tagit skydd bakom en sjömur. Kraftig tysk maskingeväreld rakade strandhuvudet. Brigadgeneral Norman D. Cota, assisterande divisionschefen för den 29: e, gick fram till LTC Schneider och sa: ”Vi måste få bort helvete från den här stranden. Rangers, gå före! ” Det var katalysatorn. Snart krypade små grupper av Rangers, infanteri och ingenjörer över havsväggen för att sätta sprängladdningar. 42

42 David W. Hogan, Jr., Amerikanska arméns specialoperationer under andra världskriget (Washington DC: Center for Military History, 1992), 44 Glassman, "Lead the Way Rangers" 20-24.

På LTC Schneiders signal bröt Rangers taggtrådsförsvaret med hjälp av Bangalore -torpeder. För tillfället dold för fiendens observation av molnen av stigande rök från explosionerna och gräsbränderna, flyttade Rangers snabbt genom luckorna och uppför backen. Dog Company, ledd av överlöjtnant Francis W. Dawsons pluton, attackerade kullen och eliminerade en fiendes starka punkt, vilket gjorde att resten av bataljonen kunde flytta inåt landet. Efter att ha arbetat sig genom bältet av tyska minfält började bataljonen attackera det formidabla försvaret runt Vierville. 43

43 Glassman, "Lead the Way Rangers" 21 Major Hugo W. Heffelfinger, huvudkontor, 5th Ranger Battalion, "5th Ranger Battalion Action Against Enemy Reports, 6 juni 1944", ARSOF Archives, John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Museum, Fort Bragg, NC.

1LT "Ace" Parker ledde Able Company, 5th Rangers till den förutbestämda rallypunkten, Chateau de Vaumicel, sydväst om Vierville. När enheten stannade hade Parker bara 23 män, mindre än hälften av hans företag. Oförskräckt fortsatte 1LT Parker med sitt uppdrag - lättnaden för Rangers vid Point du Hoc. På egen hand nådde den lilla styrkan äntligen Rudders män vid 2200 timmar med 20 tyska fångar fångade under eldstrider längs vägen. 44 Resten av Schneiders styrka följde dock inte direkt.

44 Svart, Bataljonen, 137-138 Major Hugo W. Heffelfinger, huvudkontor, 5th Ranger Battalion, "5th Ranger Battalion Action Against Enemy Reports, 6 juni 1944," ARSOF Archives, John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Museum, Fort Bragg, NC (nedan citerat som 5: e Ranger Bataljon AAR och datum) Moen och Heinen, Reflektioner av mod på D-dagen och dagarna som följde, 93.

Fortfarande ansluten till 116: e infanteriregementet (29: e infanteridivisionen) beordrade överste Charles D. W. Canham, regementschefen, Task Force C Rangers att hjälpa sin utarmade enhet i försvaret av Vierville och skydda strandhuvudet mot en fiendens motattack. Detta uppdrag försenade deras rörelse till Pointe du Hoc. När det uppdraget var genomfört kämpade Schneiders styrka västerut för att slutligen avlasta Rudders misshandlade kontingent den 8 juni (D+2). 45

45 Hogan, Amerikanska arméns specialoperationer under andra världskriget, 44 Glassman, "Lead the Way Rangers" 20-24 svart, Rangers i andra världskriget, 218 Svart, Bataljonen, 146-151.

Efterdyningarna av Normandie

Efter att ha anslutit sig till Task Force A den 8 juni 1944 fick 5th Rangers en kort paus. På Cherbourghalvön översvämmades de allierade av den plötsliga tillströmningen av tyska fångar. Förste arméprostmarskalken inrättade tillfälliga krigsfångeläger, i storlek från 500 till 10 000 man. Den femte rangerbataljonen fick i uppgift att bevaka krigsfångläger vid Valognes och Foucarville. ”Fångarna marscherades ner till stranden i grupper om cirka hundra och lastades på fartyg till England eller USA”, påminde sergeant Victor “Baseplate” Miller, Easy Company. 47 Vakttjänst varvades med träningsersättningar och fungerade som en reaktionsstyrka, om de tyska styrkorna vid Jersey och Guernsey-öarna försökte raida kusten. 48 LTC Schneider lämnade bataljonen i juli 1944 för ett uppdrag i USA och major Richard P. Sullivan, bataljonens verkställande befäl sedan aktiveringen, tog över kommandot. 49 Efter säkerhetsuppdraget för krigsfångstjägarna var 5th Rangers engagerade i offensiva operationer på Bretagnehalvön.

47 Victor J. Miller, Mitt liv med Rangers (onlineutgåva, http://www.5thrangercoy.com/history/miller_story.html, tillgänglig 21 december 2008, kopia i USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC), 17 (nedan kallad Miller, Mitt liv med Rangers och sidnummer).

48 Glassman, ”Led vägen, Rangers,”28 Miller, Mitt liv med Rangers, 17.

49 Mischke -manuskript, 13 Hogan, US Army Special Operations under andra världskriget, 44-45 Miller, Mitt liv med Rangers, 17.

De femte Rangers och element i det 116: e infanteriet avlastar Ranger Force A vid Pointe du Hoc på D+2 (8 juni 1944). Pilen identifierar LTC -rodret. Strax efter att detta foto togs lämnade hela elementet Pointe du Hoc för att fortsätta sin attack mot väster. (Military History Institute)

Fader Lacy

”Landningsfarkosten blev fortfarande påkörda och kapellan Lacy var nere vid vattenkanten, drog sårade barn från vågorna och administrerade de sista riterna med kulor som smällde runt,” mindes major Richard P. Sullivan. "Jag var uppe vid havsväggen och organiserade killarna och jag skickade ner en Ranger som berättade för kaplanen att gå upp här och gå under tak." ”Kapellan Lacy skickade tillbaka meddelandet:” Säg till majoren att jag gör mitt jobb, och han borde hålla sig till sitt. ”” 46 För sina många hjältedåd på D-dag 1LT (kapellan) belönades Joseph R. Lacy med Distinguished Service Cross.

46 Tom Long, "Richard P. Sullivan, dekorerad för tapperhet i D-Day-överfall vid 81: [City Edition]."Boston Globe, 5 augusti 1999, http://www.proquest.com/ (öppnade 20 april 2009) Colin Nickerson, Globe Staff. "En svidande dag för att hålla livet ut New England-veteraner berättar om mod, skräck och triumf för D-Day: [City Edition]."Boston Globe), 29 maj 1994, http://www.proquest.com/ (öppnades 20 april 2009).

LTC James E. Rudder gratulerar kapellan Joseph Lacy efter att ha presenterat honom för Distinguished Service Cross för hans handlingar på D-dagen. (Foto med tillstånd av generalmajor (R) John C. Raaen, Jr.)

Brittany -kampanjen

När allierade styrkor drev inåt landet från invasionstrandhuvudet, grupperades fiendens styrkor och drog sig tillbaka till sekundära defensiva positioner. Den primära allierade pushen var österut, med en sekundär dragning i sydväst, längs den franska kusten och Bretagnehalvön. Tyskarna hade befäst och garnisonerat flera av de större hamnarna i Bretagne. Den största av dessa var Brest, med en civil befolkning på 80 000. Hamnen var den näst största i landet. Sedan den franska kapitulationen 1940 hade Brest blivit den tyska ubåtsbasen. General der Fallschirmtruppe (paratrooper general) Hermann B. Ramcke och 40-50 000 tyskar försvarade staden. Hamnens medeltida fästning med sina vallar och väggar hade utökats med minfält, skyttegravar och pillboxar. Över hundra kanoner och luftvärnsartilleridelar skyddade försvaret. 50

50 Svart, Rangers i andra världskriget, 223 Svart, Bataljonen, 165. Allierad underrättelse uppskattade 20 000 försvarare, men sjömän och konstruktionstrupper vid baserna och diverse trupper som avbröts av de allierades framryckning hade svullnat försvaret till nästan 50 000. Försvararna inkluderade 2: a Fallshirmjäger (Fallskärms) division, 266: e och 343: e infanteridivisionen och några kontingenter av SS -trupper.

De allierade arméerna drev snabbt ut från D-Day beachhead till Frankrike. I december 1944 befriades större delen av Frankrike. (Insats) De andra och femte Ranger -bataljonerna flyttade in på Bretagnehalvön för operationer runt Brest. Båda enheterna skulle ta kritiska fort för att skydda hamnstaden.

När de allierade flyttade österut mot Tyskland stred de mot tre fiender: tyskarna, vädret och bristen på förnödenheter. Fler hamnar måste öppnas för att öka leveransflödet från England. 51 En av de två "Mulberry" experimentella flytbryggorna utanför Omaha Beach hade slits sönder av en sommarstorm. De allierade kunde inte längre förlita sig på stöd från invasionstränderna, särskilt när det stormiga hösten och vintervädret närmar sig. De allierade arméerna behövde tusentals ton förnödenheter dagligen för att hålla sig in i Tyskland. Att säkra hamnstäderna Cherbourg, Le Havre och Brest blev avgörande för de allierade insatserna. 52 I Bretagne tjänstgjorde både den andra och den femte Ranger -bataljonen som ”brandkår” för att driva in i hotspots.

51 Dwight D. Eisenhower, Korståg i Europa (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948), 279-280 Hugh M. Cole, Kampanjen i Lorraine (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center for Military History, 1993), 3-4 Richard Stewart, redaktör, Amerikansk militärhistoria, volym II (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center for Military History, 2005), 151-152 Stephen E. Ambrose, Medborgarsoldater: USA: s armé från Normandie -stränderna till Bulge to the Surrender of Germany, 7 juni 1944 till 7 maj 1945 (New York: Touchstone, 1997), 89 Geoffrey Perret, Det finns ett krig att vinna: USA: s armé under andra världskriget (New York: Ballantine Books, 1991), 329. Field Marshall Bernard L. Montgomery's 21st Army Group rörde sig i en norr dragning för att fånga hamnar längs Engelska kanalen, särskilt den stora belgiska hamnen i Antwerpen. I söder försökte amerikanerna rensa kanalhamnarna på Bretagnehalvön. Detta var en skrämmande uppgift med tanke på halvön var 200 miles lång och 100 miles bred.

52 Svart, Bataljonen, 165.

The 5th Rangers bildade två insatsstyrkor för sitt Brest -uppdrag. En arbetsgrupp, bestående av Able, Charlie och Easy Companies, ledd av den nya bataljonen XO, MAJ Hugo W. Heffelfinger, avlastade element från den andra infanteridivisionen nordväst om Brest. Easy Company omplacerades senare i ett gap mellan 8: e och 29: e infanteridivisionen nära Gousneou för att utföra patruller. Den 1 september var resten av bataljonen ansluten till 29: e divisionen för att "räta ut linjerna" i divisionen genom att slå ut fickor av tyskt motstånd som förberedelse för attacken mot Brest. 53

53 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 29 augusti 1944 Glassman, ”Led vägen, Rangers,” 31-32.

Attacken mot Brest började den 3 september när 5th Rangers attackerade Fort Toulbrouch, en av de många forten som omger hamnen. Striderna var så intensiva att bataljonsreserven måste engagera sig för att stoppa en motattack och högkvarterskompaniet omorganiserades till ett gevärkompani och placerades i reserv. 54 Dagen efter attackerade 5th Rangers igen med samordnat artilleri och luftstöd. CPT Bernard M. Pepper’s Baker Company attackerade bara 20 meter bakom åtta P-47-krigare som spände de tyska positionerna. ”Det var fantastiskt att se röken och smutsen och Rangers springa in i den och försvinna utom synhåll. Tyskarna, innan de kunde återhämta sig, hittade Rangers ovanpå dem och. . . fortet fångades ”, säger SGT Arden Mischke. 55 Det sextioman Baker Company erövrade Fort Toulbrouch och över 300 fångar inom 6 minuter efter den sista attacken. 56 Den 5 september attackerade hela den femte bataljonen Fort de Mengant med stöd av en pluton från Able Company, 644: e Tank Destroyer Battalion. Efter hårda strider tog Fox Company fortet med en bajonettladdning. 57

54 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 3 september 1944 Glassman, ”Led vägen, Rangers,”33 James F. Greene, Jr., E Company, 5th Ranger Battalion,“ Recollections of Brest ”, som finns på http://users.skynet.be/jeeper/page123.html.

56 Glassman, ”Led vägen, Rangers,”34 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 3 september 1944 Svart, Rangers i andra världskriget, 231.

57 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 5 september 1944 Glassman, ”Led vägen, Rangers,”34-35 Mischke-manuskript, 17 svart, Rangers i andra världskriget, 231-232.

Rangers drog av linan för en välförtjänt en dagars vila, "blev förvånade över att se två berusade tyska soldater gå nerför vägen och bära en resväska. När vi lockade dem fram till oss fann vi att resväskan var full av franska pengar. De berättade att de hade rånat deras leveransbutik (Post Exchange till oss), säger SGT Arden Mischke. Tyskarna blev befriade från sina pengar och lämnades till nykterhet i ett krigsfångeläger. 58 Händelsen gav ett kort humoristiskt mellanspel från de tuffa striderna.

Tunga strider fortsatte när 5th Rangers flyttades till Le Conquet -halvön, väster om Brest. Tyskarna, i väntan på en allierad attack, hade förbättrat sitt försvar. ”Vi visste inte vad vi skulle förvänta oss när vi tog oss till staden. Väl inne var det bråttom från byggnad till byggnad och förväntade mig att det skulle skjutas på varje minut. Äntligen hade vi slutfört vår uppgift att säkra den [Le Conquet]. I det ögonblicket var det en stor rumpus och vi var. . . redo att slå tillbaka allt som skulle komma. Se och se, här kom de fria fransmännen [styrkorna] som marscherade in med banderoller, och befolkningen kom nu ut och jublade dem, säger sergeant "Basplate" Miller. 59 De fria fransmännen ”befriade” Le Conquet till priset av fyra sårade Rangers. 60 Trots en maskingevärsbrand från en grannstad fortsatte fransmännen med att fira in på natten.

59 Miller, Mitt liv med Rangers, 21 Mischke -manuskript, 19 Glassman, “Led vägen, Rangers,”36 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 9 september 1944.

60 Svart, Rangers i andra världskriget, 234-235.

Rangers flyttade längs kusten och reducerade tyska befästningar. På Fort du Portzic utvecklade 5th Rangers en ny teknik för att övervinna pillboxen. I mörkret den 17 september ledde löjtnant James F. Greene, Jr. en elva man Easy Company-patrull för att eliminera en pillbox som hade motstått artilleri, bombningar och upprepade markattacker. ”Vi bar två 40 lb demoladdningar och en 50 lb laddning, inklusive 20 liter bensin och tung oljeblandning. Vi närmade oss försiktigt pillboxen, placerade laddningarna runt den och började hälla vår blandning i luftventilerna, sedan tog vi alla skydd. . . en enorm explosion följde vid 2210 [timmar] Pillboxen utbröt i ljusa lågor och upplyste området runtomkring, medan vi såg fulla av vördnad ... det hade fungerat !, minns Greene. Patrullen fick inga skador. 61 Dagen efter när Brest -garnisonen kapitulerade vid 1200 timmar blev 5th Rangers den 12: e amerikanska armégruppens reserv. 62

61 James F. Greene, Jr., E Company, 5th Ranger Battalion, muntlig historiaintervjuutskrift av Dr. David Hogan, 8 mars 1984, Carlisle, PA James F. Greene, Jr., E Company, 5th Ranger Battalion, "Recollections av Brest, ”finns på http://users.skynet.be/jeeper/page123.html Glassman,”Led vägen, Rangers,”37-38 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 17 september 1944 Miller, Mitt liv med Rangers, 22 Mischke-manuskript, 24-25 Kapten Edward S. Luther, "After Action Report Company E, 5th Ranger Infantry Battalion, 21 september 1944," Veteran's History Project Questionnaire, Box 3, File 6628, Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA.

62 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 18 september 1944.

Konstnärens återgivning av löjtnant Greens elva man Easy Company-patrull, under skydd av mörkret, placerar rivningsförändringar och häller en blandning av bensin och tung olja i luftventilerna. När det detonerade utbröt pillboxen och belyste området. Patrullen fick inga skador. (Illustration av Mariano Santillan)

Konventionella enheter kämpade för resten av kampanjen i Bretagne. De två Ranger -bataljonerna drogs av linjen och fick återhämta sig. 5th Rangers hade drabbats av 30% dödsoffer (137), med 24 dödade i aktion under sina nitton dagars strider runt Brest. 63 Brittany -kampanjen fick liten uppmärksamhet. De allierade arméerna tävlade över Frankrike och Belgien och Field Marshall Bernard L. Montgomery's Operation MARKET-GARDEN, marken och luftburna invasionen i Nederländerna, började. Efter Brest var den femte Ranger -bataljonen knuten till generallöjtnant George S. Pattons tredje amerikanska armé för körningen över Frankrike till Tyskland.

63 5th Ranger Battalion AAR, 18 september 1944 Mischke manuskript, 25.

En patrull från Easy Company, 5th Rangers, flyttar ut med fångade hästar och en cykel nära Grandcamp, Frankrike. Det var inte ett reklamstunt. De återvände med 53 tyska fångar. (Riksarkivet)

Omorganisation och ett nytt år

Bataljonen startade nyåret under ett nytt organisationsbord, efter att ha omorganiserats från och med midnatt den 31 december 1944. Det tidigare kompaniet A upplöstes med personalen som överfördes till andra kompanier med bataljonen och det tidigare kompaniet D omdesignades som Företaget "A." Headquarters Detachment omdesignades som Headquarters Company.

Den 1 januari 1945 befann sig kommandoposten för bataljonen framåt i Ribeauville, Frankrike, och bataljonen bak vid Ste Croix Aux Mines. Den 6 januari fick den tredje plutonen i Company C så kraftiga beskjutningar att den tvingades evakuera sina positioner i Orbey, Frankrike, och flytta tillbaka till nya positioner. Inga allvarliga skador led. Den 8 januari flyttade bataljonens främre kommandopost från Ribeauville till Lapoutroie, och den 11 januari flyttade han därifrån till Ste Croix Aux Mines, eftersom 3: e divisionen hade gått in i en rent defensiv utplacering och hade etablerat ett försvar av stort djup. Företag A arbetade med 254: e Inf. Reg., 63: e inf. Div., Som var knuten till 3: e infanteridivisionen. Den 16 januari fästes kompani "C", mindre två plutoner till den 290: e ingenjörskampbataljonen, som också stödde den tredje infanteridivisionen. Under perioden 1-22 januari var 3: e divisionen utplacerad i defensiva positioner på den nordliga omkretsen av "Colmar Pocket" på en linje från närheten strax väster om Orbey till Kayserberg, Ostheim och Guemar. Kompanierna i den 99: e kemiska murbrukbataljonen stödde divisionen och bifogade enheter, skjutande på fiendens patruller, kända fiendeställningar, stridsvagnar, maskingevärbon, motortransporter och fientliga truppkoncentrationer.

Den 19 januari 1945 mottogs fältordern från den tredje infanteridivisionen, som beskriver planen för attacken för att eliminera ALSACE Bridgehead (Colmar Pocket) genom att konvergera till den gamla fästningen Neuf-Brisach. Företag A skulle stödja den 15: e inf. Regt. med en pluton som stöder 254: e inf. Regt. Företag B skulle stödja den 30: e inf. Regt., Och Kompani C sjunde infanteriregementet.

Den tredje infanteridivisionen började sin attack 2130 timmar 22 januari, fortsatte med smyg och mördarna på 99: e gjorde väldigt lite avfyrning den första natten och följande dag. Men under de tidiga timmarna av natten den 23 januari mötte 3: e divisionen, efter framgångsrikt korsning av floden L'Ill, en stark tysk motattack och kastades tillbaka över floden. Våra framåtriktade observatörer och deras radiooperatörer tvingades simma floden i säkerhet. Under natten levererade murbrukarna defensiva bränder för infanteriet. Under dagen den 23 januari placerade företag C trakasserier mot staden Houssen och sköt mot fiendens rustning vid Chateau De Schoppenwihr, som den 7: e inf. Regt. attackerade.

Under dagen den 24 januari upprätthöll företag B en rökskärm på östra sidan av floden L'Ill för att göra det möjligt för ingenjörerna att installera broar för användning av rustning för att möjliggöra för 3: e divisionen att återuppta sin attack över floden. Företag C, samma dag, sköt mot fiendens fordon i staden Rosenkranz och på fiendens stridsvagnar i staden Houssen. Denna avfyrning var till stöd för den sjunde inf. Regt. Under dagen föll Chateau De Schoppenwihr för fot trupper och företag C lade en rökkorridor för att möjliggöra den sjunde inf. Regt. att flytta tunga fordon över öppen terräng och in i slottet. The mission was very successful and the vehicles loaded with personnel and supplies moved in without being fired upon.

On 26 January, Company A placed white phosphorus on the town of Holtzwihr. The mission was fired under enemy shelling from mortars and tanks. The 1st platoon was finally forced to move back due to enemy automatic weapons fire coming from in front of their positions. During an enemy counterattack, 2nd Lt. Harry R. Freyer, Company A, assisted in repelling an enemy counterattack by organizing a small group of scattered infantrymen and moving them forward with two other small groups of men organized by the 15th Inf. Regimental Commander. During this same counterattack, one platoon of Company B had to move back due to enemy shelling. Company C provided fire for the 7th Inf. Regt. advance into and through Houssen. On 28 January, Company A fired on enemy troops in the town of Bischwihr and Company B fired on enemy troops and tanks west of Bischwihr and troop concentrations between the Colmar Canal and Bischwihr.


Roundtable of veterans (and football fans)

Nastinchka • Every Day Should Be Saturday

/>What Army-Navy means />

On the home front, football was a respite from the grim news from overseas, and the service academies were the shining stars. As the Dec. 2 Army vs. Navy game approached, the two were the best in the land by a wide margin. For the Cadets, that marked a dramatic change from the recent past.

Through the 1930s, the fortunes of the West Point program had stumbled, then fallen precipitously. A 1-7-1 record in 1940 prompted United Press to describe the Cadets as "a national calamity," and military officials seriously considered mothballing the football team.

Instead, West Point administrators opted to ditch a three-decade-old rule barring a civilian from leading the football team and hired Earl "Red" Blaik – one of the brightest rising stars in the college football coaching pantheon.

Spartan and abstemious by nature (his most profane epithet was "Geez, Katy"), Blaik's soft-spoken manner belied a fiercely competitive spirit. His insistence on fundamentals and timing prompted one player to refer to him as "that metronomic drill devil."

The 44-year-old Ohioan had been a three-sport standout at West Point and later served as an assistant on the staff of Colonel Lawrence "Biff" Jones. It didn't take Blaik long to earn a reputation as one of the sharpest minds in football, and soon after, Dartmouth claimed him as its head coach.

In seven years at Hanover, he led the Indians to a 45-16-4 record that included a 22-game unbeaten streak from 1938-1940. During Blaik's tenure, Dartmouth won its first game ever against Yale, then repeated the feat three more times. In 1941, his alma mater summoned him back to revive the flailing fortunes of the Cadets.

Blaik took on the task of rebuilding the Army football program with one caveat: a suspension of the rule that limited the weight of players to 181 pounds or fewer. Blaik felt this was an insurmountable handicap to the team, given the increasing size of the sport's linemen.

The timing of his arrival at West Point was also fortuitous as it coincided with the onset of World War II. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in Dec. 1941, many college programs were drastically weakened as young men enlisted in the war effort. The academies subsequently saw an influx in talent as programs shuttered and their stars sought out military options.

Two of Navy's standout players in 1944, tackle Don Whitmire and running back Bob Jenkins, had starred on Alabama's powerful squads before the Crimson Tide dropped football in 1943.

Under those conditions, Blaik's quest to remake the Army football team didn't take long. He led a squad of Cadets that had eked out a single win the year before to a five-win campaign in 1941 that earned him coach of the year honors. As the quality of his players improved, so did the win-loss record, and by the time of the 1944 season, Army was once again a formidable foe.

Led by the powerful running attack of Felix "Doc" Blanchard and Glen Davis – known to the public as Mr. Inside and Mr. Outside – Army pounded its way through the opposition in 1944. By the time December arrived, the unbeaten Cadets outscored their prior opponents 481-28, and only half of the eight teams they had faced were able to eke out a single touchdown. The closest margin of victory had been 20 points.

In fact, heading into the the 1944 rivalry, the Midshipmen's 13-0 defeat of the Cadets in 1943 had been Army's most recent loss.

Navy was a popular preseason pick to win the title in 1944 despite being led by first-year coach Cmdr. Oscar E. Hagberg, who had just returned from a Pacific submarine command. The hopes of the highly touted Middie team to produce an undefeated season in 1944 went awry from the get go.

Navy lost the season opener to a surprisingly stout North Carolina Navy Pre-Flight squad. The Cloudbusters boasted future NFL star Otto Graham and were led in part by a promising young coaching prospect named Paul W. Bryant often referred to by his nickname "Bear." (The team would go on to a 6-2-1 record against a slate made up of almost entirely of military training units). The only other loss on the Midshipmen's schedule was a 17-15 defeat at the hands of Georgia Tech in Atlanta.

The barometer of Army and Navy's dominance over the rest of college football was another highly regarded team that year: Notre Dame. The Midshipmen managed to best the Fighting Irish 32-13 the first week of November, but the Cadets completely destroyed the squad from South Bend 59-0 a week later in Yankee Stadium. It remains the worst loss in Notre Dame history.

By that point, the 1944 Army vs. Navy matchup was being touted as the "game of the century" in newspaper accounts, and no less than Grantland Rice predicted it would be "one of the best and most important football games ever played." The big question was var it would be played.

At the start of the war, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had decreed that the service academies' annual rivalry game would alternate between the two campuses for the duration of the conflict. In 1944 it was slated to be played at Navy's home field, Thompson Stadium in Annapolis, Maryland, which had a maximum capacity of just under 19,000.

As interest in the game grew, government officials began to consider moving it to a larger venue in order to accommodate more spectators, as well as link it to a new war bonds push. For more than a week in mid-November, the press speculated on the possible new site for the game, with Philadelphia and New York City listed as possibilities.

On Nov. 17, it was announced the game would be held at Baltimore's Municipal Stadium, a venue with a capacity of more than three times that of Thompson Stadium that had last hosted the Army vs. Navy game in 1924. Tickets to the game were were then made available to anyone purchasing war bonds through the Maryland State War Finance Committee. These sold out within 24 hours, raising more than $58.6 million for the war effort.

On Dec. 2, 1944, a sold-out crowd of 66,659 gathered in Municipal Stadium on a frigid but clear Saturday afternoon to see the much-anticipated contest. The cold temperatures were exacerbated by a brisk wind that blew through the stadium the entire game. The Navy contingent arrived on boats sailed across Chesapeake Bay, and the Army party was carried on troopships escorted by Navy destroyers.

Blaik's pregame speech to his Army team consisted of reading a telegram sent from General Robert Eichelberger, who had been superintendent of West Point two years prior but was then serving in the South Pacific. It concluded, "Win for all the soldiers scattered throughout the world."


Den konstiga historien om hur Wyoming bombades under andra världskriget är en lite känd historia

Om du är en historiafan har du kanske hört talas om när japanerna bombade Wyoming under andra världskriget. Om den här historien låter obekant för dig, läs vidare, för det är en vild historia om krigföring som sällan gör historieböckerna.

Målet med uppdraget var att orsaka panik och rädsla i USA, men en medias avbrott innebar att dessa landningar och explosioner inte rapporterades. Faktum är att japanerna bara någonsin fick veta om landningen i Wyoming!

Det var sex offer som orsakades av en av ballongerna när den upptäcktes i en skog i Oregon och exploderade. Efter det varnade allmänheten för att hålla sig borta från föremålen, men berättelserna var fortfarande knappa.

Visste du om Thermopolis -bombningen? Om du älskar att lära dig udda berättelser från Cowboy State, ta dig tid att läsa igenom 11 vansinniga saker som hände i Wyoming som du inte hittar i historieböcker.


Special offers and product promotions

Topprecensioner från USA

Det gick inte att filtrera recensioner just nu. Vänligen försök igen senare.

In the opening pages the tenor of the book is described. This narrative is specifically aimed at the operational aspects of this critical battle. The stakes were extremely high on both sides and the fighting frenzy and determination of the men in this battle is equally high. While there is a little anecdotal history included the overwhelming coverage is operational in nature.

Hundreds of battle situations are discussed and a key aspect of the discussion will be how each officer perceived the situation and how he coped with it. By the end of the campaign these collective episodes will clearly show the differences in experience and temperament of these commanders and men and how it impacted the war effort. Mistakes and poor judgment is given equal time as proper or even brilliant decisions.
Maj General Ridgway was a tiger, always the attacker. Maj General Jones was less experienced, unsure of himself at times while Maj General Hasbrouck was more experienced than Jones but more cautious than Ridgway. The performance of German officers are also included. By including these profiles of so many men, the reader will have a better understanding of the harsh scope of this campaign.

There are literally hundreds of battle sites covered in this offensive and when village after village and road crossing after road crossing etc. takes three or four times longer to capture than estimated, the reader will see that despite the fact that the Germans initially had the advantage were advancing too slowly in the opening week, allowing the Allies to meet more of their milestones by moving reserves into blocking positions to stop the German advance.

The coverage begins in August 1944 when Bradley's 1st Army deploys into the Ardennes and lasts to the first week of February when Bradley finally pushes into Germany for the last time. It will be shown the over confidence of the Americans and the gamble of manning a thin defense in the Ardennes will contribute to the successful launch by the Germans. The steps taken by the Germans to surprise the Americans will also be covered. During the critical month, starting from mid December the battle action is broken into three phases: The first week will show the Germans advancing, pushing back the unprepared Americans. The second week sees the German advance slowly ground to a halt east of the Meuse River and finally the American counter offensive, supported by General Horrock's 30th Corps, slowly pushes the Germans back to their homeland which consumes the rest of the book.

Once the campaign begins, chapters are broken into daily events with the battlefield delineated by German Army sector then by the American divisions defending that army sector. With the 5th Pz Army making the biggest gains, that coverage begins each chapter, followed by 6th SS Pz Army in the north and with 7th Army rounding out coverage in the southern battle zone. While battle coverage is fairly comprehensive, covering the entire eighty mile front and with all the involved divisions, special attention is given to key areas like Bastogne, St Vith, the twin villages of Krinelt-Rotherath, Dom Butgenbach as well as the important Manhay-Soy-Hotton line. Contributions made by officers and men of all ranks and on both sides are also given deliberate attention and analysis.
As previous mentioned the coverage is operational in nature and covers the strategic, tactical and logistic aspects of the fighting. It also means the ground terrain, rivers, road conditions and weather also play an important role in the tactics and are amply covered as well.

There are also 14 black and white, general purpose maps to help the reader follow the story. Several maps are dual page while the remainder are single page. While I liked the color maps in the author's earlier book, I was somewhat disappointed with these. They are helpful but have lower resolution and are harder to study without the benefit of color. Besides the maps, there is a creditable Bibliography, a basic chart showing the timetable of reserves entering the Ardennes as well as an exhaustive Index. This helpful Index which is formatted in the same likeness as Thunder at Prokhorovka and is divided into three sections: People, Military Units and Places. It conveniently shows the breadth of this book with its coverage of hundreds of officers and men, military units and the many locations in the battle zone. It should be helpful in your search for specific topics.

Though not perfect considering the maps and having no Notes, there is still much to appreciate in this book like the extensive battle coverage, the key profiles and the analysis. In addition to the commentary and analysis of actual events, the author also describes several "what if" scenarios showing that if Hitler's flawed strategy had been changed before the launch with different deployments and mission objectives then it was likely the advance could have achieved greater success, perhaps even temporarily achieving the "Small Solution". Another issue pointed out was how the Americans might have had a better strategy by not holding on to Bastogne and allowing the Germans to outrun their vulnerable lines of communications as they raced toward the Meuse. Also discussed is the scenario of cutting the German salient along Skyline Drive instead of the Bastogne-Houffalize Road, which the author believes was possible under the right scenario, allowing a greater roundup of POWs and an easier entry into Germany. Another key issue describes how if Peiper had adhered to proper tactical protocols of securing his rear instead of rushing off far ahead of his line, his Combat Group would have probably avoided their early isolation and demise by allowing the 12th SS Pz Div. and or Das Reich to closely follow to protect their rear and flank areas.

The frequent moving about from topic to topic in the author's first book has been modestly reduced in this book but with 700 pages of material this book is still a handful and the reader should have a keen interest in the campaign and be prepared for the challenge.

With 700 oversize pages devoted to the operation, the author has gone to great lengths to cover not only the key battle sites and action of the campaign but also the officers and men that fought these battles. An important and fascinating aspect to this campaign involves the timelines each side tried to achieve while trying at the same time disrupting its enemy's. Each side establishes a timeline that must be met if victory was to be achieve and as the story develops, these timelines are frequently discussed along with the battle action with special attention paid to when a milestone is missed. When enough of these milestones are missed, the ramifications to the individual division, its respective army and finally to the overall campaign are discussed and clarified.

This second book shows improvement over the author's first book and I hope further improvement will be made on his next book and I believe the positives outweigh the negatives and that fellow enthusiasts will also like or at least appreciate this rendition of the campaign.


Kommentarer

Sharon Wilders wrote 10 years ago.
One little blip of a mosque, and an almost complete erasure
of the part that al Husseini, the Muslim Brotherhood, played
in the part of the Final Solution. His giving Bosnians to
form two SS Mountain Divisions that wiped out 90% of the
Jews in their area. If you omit history no one will remember
it or learn from it. That is why/how the Muslim Brotherhood
is making a comeback in so many of our nations. We wiped out
the Nazis - but we did not wipe out the Muslim Brotherhood
and their history is very bad.


Today in World War II History—December 7, 1939 & 1944

80 Years Ago—December 7, 1939: In Soviet-Finnish war, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Italy declare neutrality.

Lou Gehrig is elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame at 36, he is the youngest player honored to that date.

The number three gun of the destroyer USS Ward and her crew, credited with firing the first shot at Pearl Harbor (US Navy photo)

75 Years Ago—Dec. 7, 1944: At Ormoc Bay on Leyte, destroyer USS Avdelning is damaged by a kamikaze exactly three years earlier, USS Avdelning fired the first shots during the attack on Pearl Harbor—she is scuttled by destroyer USS O’Brien under the command of William Outerbridge, who had commanded the Avdelning on Dec. 7, 1941. (Read more: “Remember Pearl Harbor—The US Navy’s Role at Pearl Harbor” ).

Nazi women’s leader Gertrud Scholtz-Klink asks all German women over 18 to volunteer to serve in the armed services to release men to the front.

USS Ward on fire after being struck by a Japanese kamikaze in Ormoc Bay, Philippines, 7 Dec 1944, three years to the day after she fired the first US shot of the Pacific War (US Navy photo 80-G-270773)

2 Responses to “Today in World War II History—December 7, 1939 & 1944”

This story of the Destroyer USS Ward triggered my interest as to where I was on this date of December 7, 1944, upon reviewing out Ships Deck Log, of the LST 45, I recall it distinctly, as if it were “yesterday” we were at Leyte Gulf, beached at Tarraguna, almost directly across the island from Ormoc Bay there was grove of trees off of our now and we were unloading Army cargo, it was 1220, “flash red” was sounded for emergency general quarters. At 1231 our anti-aircraft guns commenced firing on an unidentified plane approaching overhead the plane became identified as a friendly F40 Corsair, guns stopped firing immediately – 57 rounds 20mm, and 5 rounds 40mm expended. Thankfully, we didn’t hit it. Three days later, on the 10th we had moved to nearby Taytay Point bay with several other ships when at 1905 a Japanese Kamikaze plane came alongside our port side, we fired at it, setting it on fire, as it crossed our stern and dove into a Liberty Ship, two minutes later at 1907 a second Kamikaze plane came over and we, along with other ships, commenced firing at it as it dove into the second Liberty Ship which was unloading gasoline, setting it on fire, that ship, a few weeks earlier, had been hit in the bow and left a hole the size that a “train could go through”. The next day all hands (that were left) abanded ship and she sunk. I had not realized that the first incident was on December 7th until I read our ships log, promped by your story. Thank you for these great daily postings. Whenever you post them, I always wonder “where was I on that date?”.

My goodness, Donald. What you lived through! Thank you again for your service – I can never thank you enough.


Black Soldiers of the Ardennes

Reprinted with permission from Lieutenant Colonel Richard F. Machamer, Jr., Editor-in-Chief Soldiers Magazine, Fort Belvoir, Virginia.

The service of Black soldiers in U.S. military conflicts has been distinguished. They earned proud reputations in frontier battles to open the American West they fought alongside Gen. "Blackjack" Pershing in Mexico contributed their skills and lives in the Spanish-American War, and charged up San Juan Hill. But less is generally known about their valiant service during World War II.

The Black soldier of World War II was, for the most part, the faceless supporter of America's war effort, at least initially. He was the supplyman, the ammunition handler and the engineer. Only occasionally was he an artilleryman, infantryman or tanker.

Those Black combat units that existed were mostly corps troops sent to add firepower at the toughest point in the fight. As corps artillery units and non-divisional tank and tank destroyer battalions, they were attached, not assigned, and thus were not identified as participants in hundreds of battles except in their own unit histories.

This article spotlights the actions of Black soldiers during one short period in one major battle - the "Battle of the Bulge."

The winter in Europe in 1944 was the meanest in 38 years. The ground throughout the Ardennes was covered with a thick blanket of snow which was maintained by constant sub-freezing temperatures.

The Ardennes counter-offensive, the "Battle of the Bulge," started at dawn December 16, 1944. It was a counter-offensive launched at the weakest sector of the Allied front, a quiet area manned by units resting and refitting with new men who had yet to see combat.

The offensive by 29 German divisions and brigades, in its first 17 days, destroyed one American infantry division, badly crippled two others, cut one armored combat command to pieces, and caused 41,315 American casualties. Total casualties in the 42 days the battle raged topped 80,000.

The personnel situation at this time, throughout the theater, was grim. The week before the Ardennes counter-offensive, the European Theater of Operation estimated an overall shortage of 23,000 riflemen by the end of the month. The 106th Infantry Division, an untried division that was to bear the brunt of the initial attack in the Ardennes, had already had its combat training practically negated by having to provide 60 percent of its enlisted strength as individual replacements for other units prior to and after D-Day.

From the beginning of World War II to 1945, the strength of Black troops in the Army grew from less than 4,000, primarily in the four regiments of the "U.S. Army Colored Troops" (the 9th and 10th Cavalry and 24th and 25th Infantry), to almost 700,000 in all types of units, even some integrated ones.

Official integration of U.S. Armed Forces didn't take place until July 26, 1948 when President Truman issued Executive Order No. 9981. However, Black soldiers had served in platoons and sometimes squads or less in otherwise white companies beginning with the Ardennes.

The attack began the morning of December 16, 1944 in the VIII Corps sector with the 106th and 28th Divisions taking the brunt of the attack. During the daylight hours, the direction and size of the German attack was only vaguely perceived. VIII Corps was deployed over such an extended front that it was impossible to provide a defense in depth. The defensive plan was to defend in place all along the front as long as possible and to deny the enemy use of the Ardennes road net. The Corps reserve was an armored combat command and four engineer battalions.

There were nine Black Field Artillery Battalions in VIII Corps. Four of the seven Corps Artillery units supporting the 106th Division (the 333rd, 559th, 578th and 740th) were Black.

The 333rd Field Artillery Group, which had been in support of the 105th Infantry Division at the beginning of the battle, was attached to the newly arrived 101st Airborne Division and ordered to move to the vicinity of Bastogne on December 19. This was a unit with a Black Headquarters and Headquarters Battery which was used interchangeably with white units as the need arose. When they received orders, the group moved to Bastogne with one white (the 771st) and two Black battalions (the 969th and 333rd Field Artillery Battallions).

The 333rd Field Artillery Battalion moved to Bastogne at less than full strength. It had fought so far forward in support of the 106th Division that, after the evening of the 16th, the entire battalions had only five guns. This Battalion sustained heavier losses defending Bastogne than any other VIII Corps Artillery unit. It lost six officers, 222 enlisted men, nine guns, 34 trucks and 12 weapon carriers.

The other Black unit in the 333d Group, the 969th, entered the defense of Bastogne by chance. It had been assigned to support the 28th Division and had been ordered to move west. When the enemy broke into the open, the battalion was already moving out of the Bastogne sector.

On December 21, under heavy fire, it moved a half mile west of Bastogne where it manned the guns another unit had abandoned along with the remaining elements of the 333rd Battalion.

The 969th was later recommended by Maj. Gen. Maxwell Taylor, commander of the 101st, for the Distinguished Unit Citation for its actions around Bastogne. The February 7, 1945 citation was the first award of a distinguished Unit Citation to a Black combat unit in World War II.

Another Black battalion that took part In the Battle of the Bulge was the 578th Field Artillery which was attacked at Heckhuscheid. The men armed themselves with small arms then fought as infantry with the 424th Infantry Regiment whom they were supporting. On December 20, the battalion reverted to control of its artillery group and picked up a white howitzer battery and anti-aircraft platoon. On December 22, the battalion was attached to III Corps. Despite the long road marches required by these orders, the battalion fired 3,455 eight-inch rounds during the next few weeks.

There were three Black Tank Destroyer Battalions in the Ardennes the 630th, 701st and 502d. Gunners of the 630th formed a roadblock in Sibret and fought as infantrymen to delay a company of the 5th German Parachute Division on December 20. Elements of the 701st fought with B Company, 35th Tank Battalion west of Lutrebois on the 30th and ambushed a German Panzer Company that was attacking Alpha Company. A platoon of the 502nd provided the majority of the firepower remaining in the 28th Division's reserve when the division commander combined it with survivors of the 110th infantry and 28th Division stragglers. On the morning of December 22d the unit beat off the first attack by lead elements of the German 5th Parachute Division.

After the Americans realized, on December 17, that a major attack was in progress, more than 60,000 men and 11,000 vehicles were on the move to reinforce the First Army. Over the next eight days, three times that number were diverted to meet the Germans in the Ardennes. Among the units diverted was the 761st Tank Battalion, the first Black tank battalion to see World War II action.

The 761st was initially assigned to the 26th Division of XII Corps in the Third Army and spent 183 consecutive days in action after being committed in Morville-les-Vic in November 1944. The unit ended its commitment when it met the Russians at the Enns River in Austria, March 29, 1945. Ten 761st tanks were part of the honor guard when the German forces surrendered.

The 761st fought mainly in platoon or company sized elements attached to various infantry regiments or divisions. Piecemeal employment was not unusual for separate tank battalions. It was attached at various times to the 26th, 71st, and 87th Infantry Divisions, the 17th Airborne Division and the 17th Armored Group. The battalion was committed with the 345th lnfantry around Bastogne and had successful operations at such places as Bonerue, Recogne, and Tillet. During operations in the Ardennes, when trucks could not reach elements of the unit, the light tanks of Company D towed ammunition trailers from ammunition dumps to supply the medium tanks.

The 761st motto, "Come Out Fighting," exemplified the spirit and the attitude of Blacks in World War II. It was an opportunity to show what Black soldiers could do.

Captain John Long, commander, Company B, 761st, called "the Black Patton" by the white infantrymen he supported, personified this spirit with his statement: "Not for God and Country but for me and my people. This was my motivation pure and simple when I entered the Army."

Mary Motley, in her book "The Invisible Soldier," quoted Eddie Donald, a member of the unit. He said, "The Ardennes was one of our roughest fights. The 761st had just punched a hole through the Siegfried Line. It had taken . days of Steady fighting and then Patton's 4th Armored Division started pouring through that hole Into Germany. As the 4th entered, the General and the 761st was diverted north along with other Patton tankers. The 761st was given as its objective a town called Tillet. It took one week to drive the Germans out of this town . I mention Tillet because every group that had been assigned to it had taken a severe beating. Of all the tankers with Patton it was the 761st that was given Tillet. We took the town."

While the 761st and the rest of Patton's Army were coming north to provide relief, the VIII Corps was in dire straits. The 106th Infantry and the 28th Infantry Divisions had been at the spear point of the attack and the entire VIII Corps was reeling. Confusion reigned.

By dusk, December 17, the German advances at the expense of the 28th Division were formidable.

VIII Corps had a last combat hope - the rear echelon soldier, headquarters, supply and technical service troops, and those men who show up during every battle, the lost, the separated, the stragglers. Although poorly armed and hastily organized, they could, if effectively used, make the difference between effective reserves and none, between a line holding and being broken through.

Maj. Gen. Troy H. Middleton, VIII Corps Commander, was called upon to use all of these black and white reserves. Their total effect in the fight to delay the German forces ripping through the VII Corps center was extremely important.

During the fight for Sibret, the German 5th Parachute Division broke into the town and occupied the police station. Maj. Gen. Norman D. Cota, commander of the 28th Division, went through the streets rounding up all the troops he could find for a counter-attack. When the building could not be taken by unsupported riflemen, he maneuvered a battery of the 771st Field Artillery (a Black unit) into position to fire on the building. This action caused the German Panzer Corps to retract the earlier report that Sibret had been taken and told of heavy fighting in the "strongly garrisoned village." When German tanks moved in on the American artillery battery, Cota ordered his small force to retire south of Vauxlez-Rosieres where he set up his division command post.

His command's residue had one more battle to fight. The night of December 21 some 200 survivors of the 110th Infantry fight at Wiltz reached the 28th Division Command Post. Cota also had an engineer light pontooc company retained as riflemen, a few howitzers sited as single pieces around the outpost position at Vaux-lez-Rosieres on the Bastogne-Neufchateau Road, and a platoon of SP 76mm tank destroyers from the 602d Tank Destroyer Battalion (a Black unit).

This conglomeration of soldiers covering key points was probably a continuation of the "every soldier an infantryman" requirement which began in the 106th Infantry sector at the time of the initial breakthrough. Policy or not, the idea continued throughout the war.

The integration of Black and white troops happened out of necessity and did not occur only with combat troops under fire. During the siege of Bastogne when many units had lost their service personnel and equipment, Technician 4 Beoman Williams of the 333rd Field Artillery Group headquarters set up an improvised kitchen and fed over a thousand men daily. Among the first ambulances to reach the besieged troops at Bastogne were those of the 590th Ambulance Company (Black). Necessity had broken barriers that were thought to be unbreakable.

Lt. Gen. John C. H. ("Court House") Lee had proposed the use of physically fit Black soldiers from his communication zone (COMMZ) units to help solve the shortage of riflemen.

On December 26, 1944 Lee sent out a letter that basically said he would offer colored privates and PFC's who had had infantry training the opportunity to join units at the fronts.

The letter said the plan was to assign these replacements without regard to race or color. It expressed the Supreme Commander's and Lee's confidence that the offer would be accepted and the troops would carry on in keeping with the glorious record of "our colored troops in our former wars.".

However, the plan represented a major break from policy. Before It could be carried out, a number of changes occurred. The proposal to mix Black soldiers into otherwise white units without quota on an individual basis caused some apprehension.

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, when reminded that segregation was official War Department policy, personally rewrote the letter and dropped the reference to the assignment plan.

By February 4, 4,562 Black troops had volunteered for infantry duty. Many were noncommissioned officers who took a reduction in rank to volunteer. By March 1, 1945, the first 2,253 men were ready. Although the Battle of the Bulge was over, these soldiers were divided into 12 platoons for the 12th Army Group, who assigned them as the fourth platoon in a company of each regiment, and 12 platoons for the 6th Army Group where they fought for the remainder of the war.

A month after the employment of these platoons, the division commander of the 104th Infantry said: "Their combat record has been outstanding. They have without exception proven themselves to be good soldiers."

The Black soldier was a vital factor in winning the Battle of the Bulge and World War II.

(NOTE: When the article was published in Soldiers magazine (February, 1981), the author, Major Gerald K Johnson was assigned to the Office of the Project Manager, Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization Program)


Titta på videon: IS-2 1944 u0026 SU-6 TWIN 37MM CANNONS War Thunder Tanks Gameplay (Augusti 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos